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Posted on August 28, 2018 at 7:55 AM Comments comments (955)
Alphabetic List of Molds and Airborne Particles With a Summary of Particle Toxicity and Clinical References This guide to harmful indoor mold contaminants contains microphotographs of building mold observed in air, surface, or vacuum samples collected during our building investigations. Citations are collected from a variety of authoritative sources, primarily the authoritative "Clinical Mold and Toxic Particle References" cited in the extensive bibliography at the end of this document. References to online resources are included. Index to Building Mold Genera/Species in This Document A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - QR - S - T - U - V - WXYZ Directories of 6 atlases or indices of building mold BLACK MOLD, HARMLESS - Photos of of often recognizable, usually harmless or cosmetic black mold on wood MOLD APPEARANCE - WHAT MOLD LOOKS LIKE - Photos of what mold looks like in buildings, organized by mold color and appearance. MOLD APPEARANCE - STUFF THAT IS NOT MOLD - Photos of material that is not mold but is sometimes mistaken for mold MOLD ATLAS & PARTICLES INDEX, Pathogens, Allergens and Other Indoor Particles - actual and possible medical health effects of Mold (separate online document) MOLD FREQUENCY in BUILDINGS - Table of what mold genera/species are frequently found in indoor mold tests. MOLD GROWTH ON SURFACES, PHOTOS - Photos of what mold looks like in buildings on more than 100 surfaces, organized by mold growth on various kinds of building surfaces and contents or items found in buildings. Mold in situ. MOLD GROWTH on SURFACES, TABLE OF - Summary table of what mold genera/species are frequently found on various building surfaces and materials MOLD BY MICROSCOPE - Mold under the microscope - photo identification of the most common indoor molds found in buildings MOLD in the PETRI DISH, PHOTOS - what mold looks like on culture plates or in culture-type mold test kits MOLD RELATED ILLNESS SYMPTOMS - Mold Related Illness: Index of Symptoms. Readers should not rely on this document for medical diagnosis and instead should consult with their physician or with a specialist such as a medical toxicologist NOTICE: This Mold and Airborne Particle Toxicity Atlas (© 2012 - 1985 DJF All Rights Reserved) is organized alphabetically by mold genera/species or other particle name. For each mold genera/species or for other particles, known medical, allergenic, pathogenic, or toxicological effects are listed. Research on the toxicology of mold and other indoor particles is incomplete and people may express a wide range of symptoms and health complaints which may appear to be related to mold and other indoor contaminants notwithstanding the lack of confirming research. Citing this document: Readers wishing to provide citations of the contents of this atlas may do so by citing this web page or where the original texts are available those should be cited. In some cases where I have been unable to locate an authoritative source of medical information for certain particles I may express an opinion about the possible effects based on field observation and client complaints but such opinions are labeled as such and should not be considered authoritative. Suggestions and criticism are welcomed.. Information About Individual Mold Genera/Species found in Buildings A Absidia sp. "A zygomycete fungus. Reported to be allergenic. May cause mucorosis in immune compromised individuals. The sites of infection are lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin. Infections may have multiple sites." U. Minn. [NOTE: Citations labeled U. Minn. refer to the University of Minnesota Department of Environmental Health and Safety - see --DJF] Acrodictys sp. - -- no medical information was located, i.e. this fungus is not cited in common clinical fungi references which concern fungal species which are pathogens. Where this mold has been found observers should be alert for other fungal species as mold-conducive conditions are present. This fungus may be a wood-rotter.-- DJF [NOTE: Citations or comments with the "--DJF" suffix represent the author's opinion and without further research may not be authoritative.] Acremonium sp. (Cephalosporium sp.) - "Reported to be allergenic. Can produce a trichothecene toxin which is toxic if ingested. It was the primary fungus identified in at least two houses where the occupant complaints were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Asexual state of Emericellopsis sp., Chaetomium sp., and Nectripsis sp. It can produce mycetomas, infections of the cornea and nails." - U. Minn. [See Gliomastix sp. discussion.] Acremonium species are found in soil, sewage, and on vegetation and food and are an airborne spore. Human infections with Acremonium used to be rare but are reported more frequently, associated with hyalohyphomycosis (fungal tumors or masses, or eye infections). Acremonium mold has been associated with systemic infections: endocarditis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, and pumonary infections as well as infections of skin, nails and hard palate. This fungus has also been reported to colonize on contact lenses - Fundamentals of Diagnostic Mycology, Fisher & Cook 1998, excerpted by DF. Alternaria sp - [Very common mold, widespread outdoors.-DF] A very common allergen with an IgE mediated response. Outdoors it is common in soil, seeds, and on plants. Indoors it is often found in carpets, textiles, and on horizontal surfaces in building interiors. Often found on window frames. The large spore size of Alternaria mold conidiophores suggests that the spores from this fungi will deposited in the nose, mouth and upper respiratory tract. It may be related to baker's asthma. It has been associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The species Alternaria alternata is capable of producing tenuazonic acid and other toxic metabolites which may be associated with disease in humans or animals. Alternaria sp. can be a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema. -- U. Minn. Dept. of Environmental Health & Safety. A. alternata is an outdoor mold, considered an important allergenic mold. -- 8/01 -df -- The genus contains 44 species of which most are plant parasites, but a few species are ubiquitous and are also frequently soil-borne. A. alternata is the commonest of these. Although usually seen as saprophytic contaminants, Alternaria species are recognized causative agents of mycotic keratitis and phaeohyphomycosis. Clinical manifestations include cutaneous infections, paranasal sinusitis, osteomyelitis and peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Clinical group: Opportunistic mycoses Mycosis: Phaeohyphomycosis -- U. Adelaide Amerospores - One-celled fungal spores generally round to oval with a length/width ratio