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|Posted on August 28, 2018 at 7:55 AM||comments (1071)|
Alphabetic List of Molds and Airborne Particles With a Summary of Particle Toxicity and Clinical References This guide to harmful indoor mold contaminants contains microphotographs of building mold observed in air, surface, or vacuum samples collected during our building investigations. Citations are collected from a variety of authoritative sources, primarily the authoritative "Clinical Mold and Toxic Particle References" cited in the extensive bibliography at the end of this document. References to online resources are included. Index to Building Mold Genera/Species in This Document A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - QR - S - T - U - V - WXYZ Directories of 6 atlases or indices of building mold BLACK MOLD, HARMLESS - Photos of of often recognizable, usually harmless or cosmetic black mold on wood MOLD APPEARANCE - WHAT MOLD LOOKS LIKE - Photos of what mold looks like in buildings, organized by mold color and appearance. MOLD APPEARANCE - STUFF THAT IS NOT MOLD - Photos of material that is not mold but is sometimes mistaken for mold MOLD ATLAS & PARTICLES INDEX, Pathogens, Allergens and Other Indoor Particles - actual and possible medical health effects of Mold (separate online document) MOLD FREQUENCY in BUILDINGS - Table of what mold genera/species are frequently found in indoor mold tests. MOLD GROWTH ON SURFACES, PHOTOS - Photos of what mold looks like in buildings on more than 100 surfaces, organized by mold growth on various kinds of building surfaces and contents or items found in buildings. Mold in situ. MOLD GROWTH on SURFACES, TABLE OF - Summary table of what mold genera/species are frequently found on various building surfaces and materials MOLD BY MICROSCOPE - Mold under the microscope - photo identification of the most common indoor molds found in buildings MOLD in the PETRI DISH, PHOTOS - what mold looks like on culture plates or in culture-type mold test kits MOLD RELATED ILLNESS SYMPTOMS - Mold Related Illness: Index of Symptoms. Readers should not rely on this document for medical diagnosis and instead should consult with their physician or with a specialist such as a medical toxicologist NOTICE: This Mold and Airborne Particle Toxicity Atlas (© 2012 - 1985 DJF All Rights Reserved) is organized alphabetically by mold genera/species or other particle name. For each mold genera/species or for other particles, known medical, allergenic, pathogenic, or toxicological effects are listed. Research on the toxicology of mold and other indoor particles is incomplete and people may express a wide range of symptoms and health complaints which may appear to be related to mold and other indoor contaminants notwithstanding the lack of confirming research. Citing this document: Readers wishing to provide citations of the contents of this atlas may do so by citing this web page InspectAPedia.com/mold/Mold_Particle_Atlas.php or where the original texts are available those should be cited. In some cases where I have been unable to locate an authoritative source of medical information for certain particles I may express an opinion about the possible effects based on field observation and client complaints but such opinions are labeled as such and should not be considered authoritative. Suggestions and criticism are welcomed.. Information About Individual Mold Genera/Species found in Buildings A Absidia sp. "A zygomycete fungus. Reported to be allergenic. May cause mucorosis in immune compromised individuals. The sites of infection are lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin. Infections may have multiple sites." U. Minn. [NOTE: Citations labeled U. Minn. refer to the University of Minnesota Department of Environmental Health and Safety - see www.dehs.umn.edu/ --DJF] Acrodictys sp. - -- no medical information was located, i.e. this fungus is not cited in common clinical fungi references which concern fungal species which are pathogens. Where this mold has been found observers should be alert for other fungal species as mold-conducive conditions are present. This fungus may be a wood-rotter.-- DJF [NOTE: Citations or comments with the "--DJF" suffix represent the author's opinion and without further research may not be authoritative.] Acremonium sp. (Cephalosporium sp.) - "Reported to be allergenic. Can produce a trichothecene toxin which is toxic if ingested. It was the primary fungus identified in at least two houses where the occupant complaints were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Asexual state of Emericellopsis sp., Chaetomium sp., and Nectripsis sp. It can produce mycetomas, infections of the cornea and nails." - U. Minn. [See Gliomastix sp. discussion.] Acremonium species are found in soil, sewage, and on vegetation and food and are an airborne spore. Human infections with Acremonium used to be rare but are reported more frequently, associated with hyalohyphomycosis (fungal tumors or masses, or eye infections). Acremonium mold has been associated with systemic infections: endocarditis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, and pumonary infections as well as infections of skin, nails and hard palate. This fungus has also been reported to colonize on contact lenses - Fundamentals of Diagnostic Mycology, Fisher & Cook 1998, excerpted by DF. Alternaria sp - [Very common mold, widespread outdoors.-DF] A very common allergen with an IgE mediated response. Outdoors it is common in soil, seeds, and on plants. Indoors it is often found in carpets, textiles, and on horizontal surfaces in building interiors. Often found on window frames. The large spore size of Alternaria mold conidiophores suggests that the spores from this fungi will deposited in the nose, mouth and upper respiratory tract. It may be related to baker's asthma. It has been associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The species Alternaria alternata is capable of producing tenuazonic acid and other toxic metabolites which may be associated with disease in humans or animals. Alternaria sp. can be a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema. -- U. Minn. Dept. of Environmental Health & Safety. A. alternata is an outdoor mold, considered an important allergenic mold. -- labspec.co.za 8/01 -df -- The genus contains 44 species of which most are plant parasites, but a few species are ubiquitous and are also frequently soil-borne. A. alternata is the commonest of these. Although usually seen as saprophytic contaminants, Alternaria species are recognized causative agents of mycotic keratitis and phaeohyphomycosis. Clinical manifestations include cutaneous infections, paranasal sinusitis, osteomyelitis and peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Clinical group: Opportunistic mycoses Mycosis: Phaeohyphomycosis -- U. Adelaide Amerospores - One-celled fungal spores generally round to oval with a length/width ratio
|Posted on August 11, 2016 at 2:20 PM||comments (30)|
Under New Safety Law, 20 Toxic Chemicals EPA Should Act On Now . Under New Safety Law, 20 Toxic Chemicals EPA Should Act On Now Thursday, July 21, 2016 By Bill Walker, Managing Editor, and Melanie Benesh, Legislative Attorney. Chemicals research by Johanna Congleton, David Andrews and Sonya Lunder, Senior Scientists Under New Safety Law, 20 Toxic Chemicals EPA Should Act On Now Now that President Obama has signed legislation to overhaul the nation's primary chemical safety law, the Environmental Protection Agency is facing a crucial decision: Of the myriad industrial chemicals that pose health risks and pervade Americans' lives, which should it tackle first? The EPA�??s answer will provide an early signal of how well the new law will protect Americans from harmful chemicals in consumer products. The EPA could propose to ban or restrict notorious "bad actor" chemicals such as asbestos �?? still in use decades after researchers indisputably showed that the smallest exposures can be deadly. The agency could go after emerging threats such as bisphenol A, a hormone disrupter linked to reproductive harm and cancer, which is used to coat the inside surfaces of billions of cans. Until last month, the Toxic Substances Control Act, or TSCA, had not been updated since it was originally passed in 1976. It was widely regarded as the weakest federal environmental law on the books. The new law �?? the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which the president signed June 22 �?? was hailed by the chemical industry and its supporters in Congress as a major step forward. But most public health and environmental groups, including EWG, believe it doesn't go nearly far enough. The bill may not provide the EPA with the resources or clear legal authority it needs to quickly review and, if necessary, ban dangerous chemicals linked to cancer and other serious health problems. To be sure, the new law strengthens the EPA's ability to regulate new chemicals. It also requires, for the first time, that the EPA systematically evaluate the safety of existing chemicals, and take action on those found unsafe in order to reduce health risks. Of some 85,000 known chemicals, many of which are likely no longer in use, the EPA says that about 1,000 chemicals, many used in everyday consumer products, are in need of re-evaluation using new scientific tools and knowledge. The agency has placed 90 chemicals known to pose health risks on a list called the TSCA Work Plan. The EPA has conducted safety reviews, technically called risk assessments, for about a dozen of the chemicals on the Work Plan. Some aren�??t complete and are awaiting additional studies. For three chemicals, the EPA expects to propose regulations by the end of the year. EWG scientists scrutinized the chemicals listed on the TSCA Work Plan, analyzed studies by researchers in the U.S. and around the world, and consulted experts in environmental health. They considered each chemical's health risks, the number of Americans exposed to it and the likelihood of EPA action under the terms of the new law. With so many hazardous chemicals in use, any list of chemicals posing the greatest risks would be subjective and incomplete. But the vast catalogue of chemicals that have never been evaluated for safety make it urgent for the EPA move quickly to tackle the backlog. Here are 10 chemicals for which EWG urges the EPA to begin or complete review and regulate as soon as possible, plus 10 more that should be priorities for early action. 10 chemicals EPA should act on now Source: EWG, from EPA's 2014 TSCA Work Plan Asbestos Asbestos is the poster child for the failures of the old TSCA. Many Americans mistakenly believe it was banned decades ago, as it has been in 55 other nations. But U.S. industry still imports, uses and sells asbestos and asbestos products, including automobile brake pads and clutches, vinyl tile and roofing materials. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration says there is no safe level or duration of exposure to any kind of asbestos. Inhalation or ingestion of asbestos fibers can cause lung cancer, mesothelioma �?? a rare and incurable cancer �?? and asbestosis, a scarring of the lungs that often leads to heart failure. Asbestos-related diseases, which may not appear for decades after exposure, kill 12,000 to 15,000 Americans per year. In 1989, after a 10-year study, the EPA ordered a phase out and ban of 90 percent of products containing asbestos. But the asbestos industry sued, and in 1991, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ruled that the EPA had not proven a ban was the "least burdensome alternative" for protecting the public. This decision not only overturned most parts of the ban, but also set a precedent that made it almost impossible for the EPA to ban any other dangerous chemical. New evidence of asbestos�?? dangers shows up weekly, yet the EPA�??s hands remain tied. Under the new law, the EPA must still consider costs, but the agency no longer must prove a regulation to be the least burdensome method. Asbestos is on the TSCA Work Plan chemical list, but the EPA has not scheduled an updated risk assessment. Although its use has significantly declined, asbestos still poses a grave risk. The EPA should finish the job and ban this killer. PERC Tetrachlorethylene, also called perchloroethylene and PERC, is a solvent used as a dry cleaning fluid and in household products such as water repellents, spot removers, wood cleaners, adhesives and silicone lubricants. The National Toxicology Program says PERC is "reasonably anticipated" to cause cancer, and it's on California's official list of known carcinogens. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health says levels of PERC in workplace air should be as low as possible. The EPA has set a very low limit for PERC in drinking water �?? half of the limit for arsenic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has detected the compound in the blood of about 16 percent of a representative sample of Americans. No risk assessment of PERC is scheduled. The EPA should expedite an assessment, drawing on the already established scientific data, use its authority to order manufacturers to provide additional data if needed, then move quickly to reduce risk or ban the chemical. Phthalates group Phthalates make plastics more flexible and harder to break. They're in food packaging and other plastic household items such as shower curtains and flooring tiles made from polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, identifiable by recycling label #3. (Vinyl chloride, the building block of PVC plastic, is discussed below.) Phthalates are hormone disrupters, and some may cause male reproductive problems such as infertility, sperm damage and damage to the testicles. They have been linked to changes in the timing of puberty in girls. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has banned six phthalates in children's toys, and in bottles, cups and pacifiers for children 3 years old and under. The European Union has banned certain phthalates in cosmetics, toys and child care articles. The CDC has found two breakdown products of phthalates in more than 90 percent of Americans tested. The EPA has developed an action plan for a group of eight phthalates but has not implemented it. In 2013, the agency withdrew a proposal to list phthalates as "chemicals of concern," saying further study was needed. The agency should expedite a new risk assessment that considers all relevant data, order manufacturers to provide more data if needed, and move quickly to reduce risks or ban these chemicals. BPA Bisphenol A, or BPA, is a key component of the epoxy coating inside most of the 126 billion food cans manufactured in the U.S. each year. Recently, EWG unveiled a database that draws on a food industry list, showing that BPA is in the linings or lids of glass jars for baby food, pickles, jelly, salsa and other condiments; aerosol cans for whipped toppings and non-stick sprays; bottles of cooking oil; aluminum beverage cans, coffee cans and even beer kegs. It's used to coat cash register receipts and drinking water pipes, and is used in construction. A handful of companies manufactured over 2.25 billion pounds of BPA for non-food contact uses in 2011, the most recent year reported. But the names of companies who produced or imported more than 90 percent of the BPA were kept confidential by the EPA. In the body, BPA mimics estrogen. Independent research has linked it to cancer, infertility, diabetes, obesity, and brain, nervous system and cardiovascular abnormalities, among other serious disorders. It's considered especially risky for pregnant women and children in critical stages of development. The CDC has detected BPA in more than 90 percent of urine samples of people 6 years old and older. Tests commissioned by EWG were the first to find BPA in the umbilical cords of nine out of 10 infants sampled. The Food and Drug Administration no longer allows BPA-based plastics in baby bottles and sippy cups or BPA-based coatings in packaging for infant formula �?? a rule made after manufacturers had already abandoned materials containing the chemical. The FDA has denied a petition to ban BPA in all food and beverage packaging. Thirteen states, the District of Columbia and a few local jurisdictions have banned or restricted BPA use in reusable food containers, children�??s cups and baby bottles, and containers of infant formula and baby food. The EPA has developed an action plan for BPA but has not acted on it, saying more studies are needed. The National Toxicology Program is nearing completion of a large set of coordinated studies of BPA toxicity. Once this is done, the EPA should expedite a risk assessment, order more data from manufacturers if needed, and move quickly to reduce exposure by banning BPA for its most risky uses. Chlorinated phosphate flame retardants The Work Plan groups together three similar chemicals called chlorinated phosphate esters. TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP are used as flame retardants in foam cushions, upholstered furniture and baby products such as car seats. TCIPP is also used in building insulation. Over 50 million pounds of these chemicals were imported or manufactured by more than 10 companies in 2011. ICL Industrial Products of Gallipolis Ferry, W. Va., manufactured the majority of the reported TCPP and imports TBBPA and 1-bromopropane, discussed below. Albemarle Corporation of Baton Rouge, La., reported importing TCPP and manufacturing TBBPA and 1-bromopropane. Lanxess Corporation imported TCPP along with DEHA and either manufactured or imported brominated phthalate fire retardants. California lists TDCIPP, commonly known as Tris, and TCEP as carcinogens. At the request of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the National Toxicology Program is conducting animal studies that aim to determine whether TCIPP is carcinogenic. Studies show that some of these compounds are toxic to nerve cells and could harm the neurodevelopment of fetuses, infants and young children. TCEP and TDCIPP are banned in New York, Maryland and Washington state. In 2014, a study by EWG and Duke University researchers detected a breakdown product of TDCIPP in the urine of all 48 mothers and children tested, with levels in the children almost five times those in the mothers. In a follow-up study of mothers and children from California, published this month, children's exposure to TDCIPP was even higher. A breakdown product of TCIPP was also detected in all California study participants. The EPA has reviewed data on chlorinated phosphate flame retardants and is missing information critical to ensuring a robust risk assessment. The agency should fill in these data gaps and use its authority to order additional tests by manufacturers, including on their potential developmental harm, before it attempts to assess the risks of these chemicals. Brominated flame retardants The seven chemicals in this group are phthalates, used as flame retardants for polyurethane foam in furniture, baby products, gymnastics landing pits and carpet padding. The group includes chemicals known as TBB and TBPH, two flame retardants found in a mixture marketed under the name Firemaster® 550. In EPA documents, the identities of two chemicals in this group are hidden as trade secrets. Endocrine-disrupting PBDEs were phased out more than a decade ago. Firemaster® 550 is one product used as a substitute, without adequate toxicity testing. Its potential human health effects are unknown, but animal tests indicate the brominated components may harm development. Some Firemaster® 550 chemicals are structurally similar to the phthalates DEHP and DBP, which have been researched in depth and are listed by California as causing male reproductive harm. In 2014, EWG and Duke University researchers measured breakdown products of one brominated phthalate in children and their mothers. The researchers detected the chemical in 27 percent of mothers and 70 percent of children, with levels notably higher in children. The EPA's preliminary review of brominated phthalates determined that more data is needed. But the agency has not gone far enough. A federal panel recommended in 2011 that the EPA gather data on human exposures, but the agency has not done so. The EPA should exercise its authority under TSCA to require manufacturers to study Americans' exposure to brominated phthalates, move swiftly to conduct a risk assessment and regulate these substances. TBBPA and related chemicals Tetrabromobisphenol A, or TBBPA, is the brominated form of BPA. It is the most widely produced flame retardant in the world, used in the circuit boards of electronics and in plastic casings for TVs and computers. Five companies including Albemarle, Sabic, ICL Industrial Products and LG Chemical in the U.S. manufactured over 120 million pounds of TBBPA in 2011. EPA says there is little to no public information on how much TBBPA is imported in treated products. In 2009, an EWG-commissioned study found TBBPA in the umbilical cord of newborns. Independent researchers in the U.S., Canada, Europe and Asia have found TBBPA in breast milk, fat, blood and hair. A study by the National Toxicology Program found that TBBPA caused �??aggressive�?? uterine cancer in lab animals. Scientists with this interagency program concluded that TBBPA is likely a human carcinogen. California�??s state biomonitoring program identifies TBBPA as a concern based on its endocrine toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and bioaccumulation and persistence in the environment. The EPA has reviewed data on TBBPA and is missing information critical to ensuring a robust risk assessment. The agency should fill in these data gaps, and order manufacturers to supply information to help assess exposures and risks. It should then use that data to expedite a complete risk assessment. 1-Bromopropane 1-Bromopropane, or 1-BP, is a solvent used in aerosol cleaners and adhesives, dry cleaning, spot removers, coin cleaners and for a variety of industrial applications. The CDC has detected it in more than three-quarters of Americans sampled. U.S. production has increased from under 500,000 pounds in 1990 to over 15 million pounds in 2011, as 1-BP replaced other hazardous solvents. The National Toxicology Program classifies 1-BP as reasonably expected to be a human carcinogen. California lists it as a chemical known to cause reproductive harm. State regulators have determined it meets the criteria to be considered a carcinogen but have not yet officially listed it as such. The EPA says it's particularly risky for women who are pregnant or of childbearing age, on the grounds that even short-term exposure could harm a developing fetus. Last February, the EPA issued a draft risk assessment for 1-BP, which is now undergoing peer review and public comment. The EPA should take steps to improve its assessment, such as considering cumulative exposure to other solvents and estimating the risk for additional exposed populations. The agency should then expedite completion of the final risk assessment, and move quickly to reduce risks or ban the chemical. DEHA Bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, or DEHA, is a softener used in some brands of plastic wrap for packaging food in grocery stores and for home use. It is used to make PVC plastics. A study by the National Toxicology Program showed that DEHA exposure increased the incidence of liver tumors in rats and mice. The EPA has classified DEHA as a possible human carcinogen. It is not a phthalate but has chemical similarities to the phthalate DEHP, which it has replaced in plastic items such as food packaging and children�??s toys. Testing shows DEHA can migrate out of these products. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment for DEHA. The agency should expedite an assessment using available scientific data, order more data from manufacturers if needed, and move quickly to reduce risks or ban the chemical if necessary. P-dichlorobenzene P-dichlorobenzene is an insecticide used in moth balls, as a deodorant blocker for toilets and garbage cans, and to manufacture other chemicals. Between 50 and 100 million pounds of the chemical were produced in 2011. The CDC has detected it in the bodies of almost half of Americans surveyed. The National Toxicology Program says it is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen, based on studies that found exposure caused kidney and liver tumors in mice and rats. Long-term exposures can damage the liver and central nervous system. California has banned the chemical in solid deodorizers. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment for p-dichlorobenzene. The agency should expedite this effort, using the already established scientific data, ordering more data from manufacturers if needed, and moving quickly to reduce risks or ban the chemical. 10 more chemicals for early action Lead Lead contamination of drinking water is not regulated by TSCA, but rather the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. But lead is also in children's toys, jewelry, batteries, ammunition and the paint in some older houses. Exposure to lead in the womb or early childhood in even the smallest concentrations slows brain development and causes learning deficits. The CDC has detected lead in the blood of almost all Americans sampled. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment. Formaldehyde Formaldehyde is used in laminate flooring, carpeting, paints and varnishes. It's a well-established human carcinogen. Industry maneuvers have stalled the EPA's efforts to reassess its carcinogenicity under a process known as the Integrated Risk and Information System, or IRIS. Vinyl chloride Vinyl chloride is the key ingredient in making PVC plastic. Vinyl chloride gas can off-gas from new shower curtains. It is a source of the distinctive "new car smell." The National Toxicology Program says it is a known human carcinogen. The CDC has found it in about 60 percent of Americans tested. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment. Bromoform Bromoform, also known as tribromomethane, is primarily used in chemical manufacturing, as a flame retardant and in making rubber. The EPA considers it a probable human carcinogen. The CDC has found it in about one-third of Americans tested. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment. Chromium-6 Chromium-6 is the chemical at the center of the "Erin Brockovich" case, as recounted in the 2000 film about the contamination of drinking water in a small California desert town. It is used in chrome plating, in dyes and pigments, and in preservatives for leather and wood. Chromium-6 is well-established as a carcinogen when inhaled, but a decision on whether it is carcinogenic when ingested is stalled in the EPA's IRIS program. Styrene Styrene is the key ingredient in Styrofoam, and is used in making plastics and rubber. The National Toxicology Program says it's reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen, and the CDC has found it in about 40 percent of Americans. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment. Arsenic This legendary poison is found in rice cereal and many other foods, which are not regulated by EPA but by the FDA. Until the early 2000s, it was in almost all pressure-treated wood, much of which may still be in use in decks, picnic tables and playground equipment. The CDC has found arsenic in almost all Americans. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment. Ethylbenzene Ethylbenzene is used in gasoline, paints, inks, pesticides and glues, and is a component of tobacco smoke. It is a well-established neurotoxin. California and the World Health Organization list it as a known human carcinogen. The CDC has found it in almost three-quarters of Americans. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment. Cadmium Cadmium is a toxic metal found in some imported children�??s products, including jewelry, clothing accessories and paints on toys. It has been linked to delayed brain development, kidney and bone damage, and cancer. The CDC has found it in more than three-quarters of Americans. The EPA has not scheduled a risk assessment. 1,4-Dioxane 1,4-Dioxane is an industrial chemical used in paint strippers, dyes, greases, varnishes and waxes. The National Toxicology Program says it is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. Animal studies show that 1,4-dioxane can target the liver, kidneys and respiratory system, and that prenatal exposure can cause developmental harm.  The EPA has completed an initial risk assessment, and is conducting additional analysis on risks for workers and the general population.  Testimony of Jim Jones, Assistant Administrator, EPA Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, March 18, 2015.  Methylene chloride, a probable carcinogen used in paint strippers, sprays and decaf coffee; NMP, which causes reproductive harm, used in paint strippers, furniture refinishers and pesticides; and TCE, a solvent used in dry cleaning and cleaners.  OSHA. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos. Available at www.osha.gov/SLTC/asbestos/  V.R. Kay et al., Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Phthalate Diesters in Males. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 2014. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24903855  Parinaz Poursafa et al., A Systematic Review on the Effects of Environmental Exposure to Some Organohalogens and Phthalates on Early Puberty. Journal of Research in Medical Science, 2015. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4621657/  Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, EPA Chemicals of Concern List Under Section 5(b)(4) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 2013. Available at www.reginfo.gov/public/do/eAgendaViewRule?pubId=201310&RIN=2070-AJ70  EPA, OPPT Chemical Search. 2016. Available at java.epa.gov/oppt_chemical_search/  J. Pertz et al., Bisphenol A and Reproductive Health: Update of Experimental and Human Evidence, 2007-2013. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2014. Also see F. Ranciére et al., Bisphenol A and the Risk of Cariometabolic Disorders: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of the Epidemiological Evidence. Environmental Health, 2015.  FDA, Food Additive Regulations Amended to No Longer Provide for the Use of BPA-Based Materials in Baby Bottles, Sippy Cups, and Infant Formula Packaging. 2013. Available at www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm064437.htm#regulations  EPA, OPPT Chemical Search. 2016. Available at java.epa.gov/oppt_chemical_search/  National Toxicology Program, Nomination Summary for Flame Retardants (N20608). 2005. Available at ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/noms/search/summary/nm-n20608.html  L.V. Dishaw et al., Developmental Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants Elicits Overt Toxicity and Alters Behavior in Early Life Stage Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicological Sciences, December 2014.  MPI Research Study 1038-006; CN-2065: An Oral Two-Generation Reproduction and Fertility Study in Rats. MPI Research Study 1038-008; CN-2065: Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study in Rats.  Sixty-Ninth Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; Receipt of Report and Request for Comments, 77 Fed. Reg. 30856 (May 23, 2012), as cited by EDF�??s 2015 Comments to EPA on the Brominated Phthalates Cluster Flame Retardants. Jan. 20, 2015.  EPA, TBBPA Cluster Work Plan. 2015. Available at www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/tsca-work-plan-chemical-problem-formulation-and-2  EPA, TBBPA Cluster Work Plan, Supplemental File 1: Human Biomonitoring Data. 2015. Available at www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/supplemental_file_1_tbbpa_biomonitoring.pdf  NTP, NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology Studies of Tetrabromobisphenol A (CAS NO. 79-94-7) in F344/NTac Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice and Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tetrabromobisphenol A in Wistar Han [Crl:Wi(Han)] Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice.NTP TR 587. 2013. Available at ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/about_ntp/trpanel/2013/october/draft_tr-587.pdf  California EPA, Safer Consumer Product Regulations �?? Informational "Initial" List of Candidate Chemicals and Chemical Groups. California Department of Toxic Substances Control, Oct. 18, 2013. Available at dtsc.ca.gov/SCP/upload/Informational_Initial_Candidate-Chemicals-List_10-18-13.pdf  EPA, TSCA Work Plan Chemical Risk Assessment: Peer Review Draft. 1-Bromopropane: Spray Adhesives, Dry Cleaning and Degreasing Uses. 2016. Available at www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-03/documents/1-bp_report_and_appendices_final.pdf  EPA citing, WIL Research Labs, An Inhalation Two-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of 1-Bromopropane in Rats. Technical Report. 2001.  NTP, Abstract for TR-212 Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (CASRN 103-23-1) Carcinogenesis Bioassay in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study). 1982. Available at ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr200299/abstracts/tr212/index.html  Kanishka Bhunia et al., Migration of Chemical Compounds from Packaging Polymers During Microwave, Conventional Heat Treatment, and Storage. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2013.  EPA, OPPT Chemical Search. 2016. Available at java.epa.gov/oppt_chemical_search/  NIOSH, Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: P-dichlorobenzene. 2016. Available at www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0190.html  David Bellinger, Very Low Lead Exposures and Children�??s Neurodevelopment. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 2008.  EPA, IRIS: Chromium VI (CASRN 18540-29-9). 2014. Available at cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=144  ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. 2012. Available at www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/TP.asp?id=48&tid=15  EPA, 1,4-Dioxane (1,4-Diethyleneoxide). 2000. Available at www3.epa.gov/airtoxics/hlthef/dioxane.html
|Posted on August 7, 2016 at 2:25 PM||comments (156)|
Not everything that smells good is good for you & the environment. Making an all natural botanical air freshener, diffusing your favorite essential oils, and green cleaning can be both good for you and the environment. we can show you how!